Every three minutes a child in the U.S. is treated for a sports-related concussion.
Don't think it's just football players – or boys – who bang their heads. In sports in which girls and boys participate, girls suffer a higher percentage of concussions, according to a 2013 Game Changers report by
Safe Kids Worldwide.
Safe Kids analyzed sports-related emergency room injury data for children ages 6 to 19 in 2011 and 2012 in 14 sports, including basketball, cheerleading, football and soccer. Here are some of the findings:
- 12% of all emergency room visits involved a concussion (163,670)
- In basketball incidents, 11.5% of girls and 7.2% of boys were diagnosed with concussions
- In soccer, 17.1% of girls and 12.4% of boys suffered concussions
The reason girls appear to be at higher risk remains unexplained.
"We are still looking into it, trying
to see if there are really genetic differences, differences in play, or differences in biomechanics, but we don't have that link yet," said sports medicine physician Kathryn Ackerman in a USA Today article.
An estimated 1.6 to 3.8 million athletes annually suffer concussion, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Often, cases are underreported and undiagnosed. A study by the American Academy of Pediatrics shows the number of sports-related concussions is highest in high school athletes, but they are significant and on the rise in younger athletes.
Most concussions occur during games, not practices. Few result in loss of consciousness. Protect The Brain breaks down sports concussion facts for all age groups:
- 10% of all contact-sport athletes sustain concussions yearly
- Football injuries associated with the brain occur at a rate of one in every 5.5 games
- 5% of soccer players sustain brain injuries
- The head is involved in more baseball injuries than any other body part; almost half of injuries involve a child's head, face, mouth or eyes
- An athlete who sustains concussion is 4-6 times more likely to sustain a second concussion
Heady Stuff: Life Lessons and Warning Signs
If your child gets hit on the head, do not assume he just had his bell rung, or she was just dinged. Concussions are very serious and always require medical attention. Signs and symptoms of concussion include:
- Glassy eyes
- Clumsiness or poor balance
- Slowed speech
- Changes in mood, behavior or personality
Research indicates most children and teens who have a concussion feel better within a couple of weeks. However, for some, symptoms may last for months or longer and can lead to short- and long-term problems affecting how they think, act, learn and feel.
Following a concussion, athletes of all ages are advised to undergo a series of steps before returning to play: rest, then light exercise and sport-specific training. Only then should they be cleared to resume contact drills.
Make sure all coaches know how to recognize the signs of a concussion and have a plan in case of emergency. Safe Kids offers
this resource to teach coaches what they need to know.
Sometimes the Cost of Winning is Too High
The discussion about sports-related concussion and its long-term impact is being advanced by healthcare professionals, the media and even Hollywood.
In the motion picture
Concussion, which is based on a true story, actor Will Smith portrays a neuropathologist who identified chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a retired National Football League star.
In her blog, Debra Houry, an emergency department physician and director of the Injury Center at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, wrote about broadening the conversation and suggested
ways to prevent sports-related head injuries, including changing the win-at-all-cost mentality. She said young athletes deserve a chance to play sports in a culture that celebrates hard work, dedication and teamwork – in a safe environment.
HEADS UP campaign is aimed at putting educational materials into the hands of coaches, parents, athletes and school and health care professionals nationwide. The HEADS UP website offers survivor advocate stories, such as "Coach Saves Wrestler's Life by Knowing Concussion Signs and Symptoms."
From sports, children learn values they carry throughout their lives, including discipline, teamwork and how to handle winning and losing. A few bumps and bruises are to be expected, but head injuries should never be ignored.