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      NSC HOME > Safety on the Road > Defensive Driving Information Highway > Defensive Driving Resources > Defensive Driving Courses History Timeline      
 
Defensive Driving Courses History Timeline
DDC Is Forty-Nine Years Old - December 11, 2013
 
1913
The National Safety Council is founded.

1921
The National Safety Council began the publication of death and injury statistical data.

1924
Standardized Accident Reporting began through the NSC National Committee on Uniform Traffic Accident Statistics.

1927
The National Safety Council printed the first “Accident Facts” book.

1937
The National Safety Council (NSC) made its first driver safety film.  The topic was safe truck and bus driving.  It was titled, With Care.

1953
The 83rd Congress on August 13, 1953 passed Public Law 259 which formally established the National Safety Council as a federally chartered organization.

1963
The Executive Committee of the Women’s Conference of the National Safety Council
recommended the development of an adult driver improvement program. 
The Driver Improvement Program Department was opened on November 4, 1963.

1964
Based on studies from Accident Facts determining the causes of motor vehicle deaths on U.S. highways, Chris Imhoff drafted a driver safety program called the Driver Improvement Program.  The program during the field-testing process became the Defensive Driving Course (DDC).
The first DDC pilot program was sponsored by the Women’s Conference of the Toledo-Lucas County Safety Council in Toledo, Ohio.  It was taught in two one-hour sessions, one evening a week for four consecutive weeks in mid-April and early May.
The first DDC class was presented as a part of Safety Congress in 1964. Shortly after that, the first “Instructor Development Course” (IDC) was held.

1965
CBS, Shell Oil and the National Safety Council’s DDC staff produced the National Driver’s Test, viewed by roughly 80 million people on CBS-TV.
October 25, 1965 at the LaSalle Hotel in Chicago the “Advisory Committee for the Driver Improvement Programs of the National Safety Council” was founded.

1966
CBS and Shell Oil approached DDC, again, for help with the new National Driver’s Test.

1968
In Jacksonville, FL the one-millionth DDC student graduated.

1970
James A. Solomon becomes DDC instructor in Poplar Bluff, MO
The 2,000,000th DDC student graduated in Seattle, WA.
The Defensive Driving League was founded.

1971
The first Defensive Driving Course Instructors’ Association was formed in Sacramento, CA.
The 3,000,000th DDC student graduated at Fort Polk, LA.

1972
NSC announced the first annual Defensive Driving Week (April 30 – May 6).
The DDC Motorcycle Supplement was created.
The DDC self-instruction program was introduced.
The Texas State Board of Insurance granted a 10 percent premium discount to Texans who successfully completed DDC.
The 4,000,000th DDC student graduated at Fort Collins, CO.
 
1973
The 5,000,000th student graduated DDC in Long Grove, IL.
The DDC-School Bus Supplement made its debut.

1974
The Inter-American Safety Council translated DDC into Spanish and Portuguese.

1975
The 6,000,000th student graduated DDC in Honolulu, Hawaii.
A DDC Air-Ramp Vehicle program was designed for the safety of airline support drivers.

1976
The 7,000,000th DDC student graduated in Sacramento, CA.  (For the first time 1,000,000 DDC students had graduated in a single year.)

1977
The state of Florida included DDC in its point-reduction program.

1978
The 9,000,000th DDC student graduated on the Papago Indian Reservation in Sell, AZ.
DDC Self-Instruction program was revised.
The Drinking, Driving and You supplement was added to DDC.
  
1979
The 10,000,000th DDC student graduated in Fort Worth, TX.

1980
New York State mandated a 10% insurance premium discount for DDC graduates.

1981
DDC developed the Make It Click campaign.
 
1982
DDC-II was written and designed as a four-hour program.
New York lowered its eight-hour requirement for point-reduction and insurance-discount programs to six hours.

1984
The “Advisory Committee for Driver Improvement Programs of the National Safety Council” was renamed “Center for Driver Training – Advisory Committee”.  Grant Clarke of the Central Florida Safety in Orlando, FL became the fifteenth Chair.

1985
James A. Solomon takes DDC position at NSC.
The NSC began offering FLI Learning Systems Inc.’s DDC-Coaching the Experienced Driver and Coaching the Professional Truck Driver.
DDC-II was updated and renamed to DDC-4.

1986
The 20,000,000th student graduated from DDC.
The second edition of DDC Motorcycle Module was released.
DDC-Professional Truck Driver was introduced.
FLI Learning Systems Inc. and DDC introduced their first co-venture program, DDC-Coaching the Mature Driver.
New York State approved DDC-6 for point reduction and insurance discount.
The second edition of DDC Alcohol Program was introduced.
The audio DDC self-instruction program was revised.

1987
DDC-Straight Truck for truck drivers who do not operate tractor-trailers was introduced.
DDC-Coaching the School Bus Driver was introduced.
DDC Motorcycle was redesigned and introduced specifically for Florida State.
1988
The 25,000,000th student completed DDC.
DDC-4 was totally revised, with offering ease of translation to meet the needs of slow readers.
DDC-PTD-Independent Training Program was introduced as a self-study program for tractor-trailer operators.

1989
NSC introduced DDC-Coaching the Transit Bus Operator and the video version of the DDC self-instruction course.
Valvoline and CBS Entertainment approached the Driver Improvement Program for help with the third National Driver’s Test.

1990
DDC-Coaching the Experienced Driver was introduced in Spanish.
DDC-Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving was first introduced.

1991
NSC introduced Coaching the Emergency Vehicle Operator, which included CEVO-Ambulance/CEVO-Fire/CEVO-Police.
DDC-Audio Self-Instruction Program was reintroduced in its 4th edition.
DDC-4 videos and workbooks became available in Spanish and a video became available in open caption for the hearing impaired.
NSC Introduced the DDC-IBM Computer-Based Instruction.

1992
DDC-8/6, 6th edition, was introduced with videotapes available in open caption for the hearing impaired.
NSC introduced the new DDC-PTD Driver’s Notebook and a DDC-PC program.
DDC-Illinois, the first course designed to reflect one particular state’s needs and drivers was introduced for use in the Illinois Secretary of State’s Office Probationary Driver Licensing program.
DDC-4 was revised and released in the 3rd edition.

1993
The “Driver Improvement Programs – International Advisory Committee” was renamed the “Defensive Driving Courses International Advisory Committee” with Dewey Bullard
of the New Mexico Driver Improvement Institute in Santa Fe, NM as the twentieth “Committee” Chair.

1994
All-new DDC Instructor Development Course materials were introduced.  “Teaching DDC”, which included the Instructor Development Course-Instructor Trainer Manual, Candidate Instructor Guide, and Reference Material Set for DDC-8/6, DDC-4, DDC-PTD and DDC-CMD.
The Registry of Motor Vehicles for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts accepted DDC-ADD-MA, the second program designed for a specific state’s drivers.
Connecticut began using a special four-hour version of DDC-ADD for young teen drivers, taught by state DMV trainers.
Some Laws Can’t Be Broken (two-hour occupant restraint and safety system program);
It’s Closer Than You Think (two-hour drug and alcohol program); and Lines, Signs and Roadway Skills (one-hour program on interpreting the topic) were developed by NSC and introduced into the DDC product line.

1995
DDC-PTD Self-Instruction and DDC-PTD PC are introduced.
DDC- Alive at 25 was introduced for 16 – 25 year old drivers.
Florida approved a 12-hour version of DDC-ADD for its Advanced Driver Improvement Program for multiple offenders.

1996
Teaching DDC-Alive at 25 was introduced for Instructor Courses in this program.
DDC-Professional Truck Driver was introduced in the 2nd edition.
The second edition of DDC-ADD was put on shelf.
 
1997
DDC-ADD was modified to fit the specifications of the Illinois Secretary of State for the state’s probationary license program.
DDC-ADD was modified to fit the specifications of the Connecticut DMV for the state’s multiple violators program.

1998
The 7th edition of DDC-8/6 was introduced.
DDC-PC98 was put on shelf.
DDC-Coaching the Mature Driver, CEVO-Ambulance, and CEVO-Fire went into the second editions.
Teaching DDC-ADD was introduced for Instructor Courses in this program.

1999
The fourth edition of DDC-4 was introduced
“Accident Facts” is renamed “Injury Facts”.

2001
DDC-PTD Alcohol and other Drugs Supplemental Module was introduced.
DDC-PTD Winter Driving Supplemental Module was introduced.

2002
DDC Online for College of Lake County, IL

2003
The third edition of DDC-PTD was introduced.
Lisa Daniels of Lake County College named First DDC Instructor of the Year.

2004
The second edition of DDC-Alive at 25 is put on shelf.
DDC-PTD Online
Erickson Fonseca of Rescue International, Brazil named Second DDC Instructor of the Year.

2005
The 8th edition of DDC-8/6 is released.  New flip chart, Action Power point, video/DVD
DDC-8-Virgina 8th edition released
DDC-6 – NY 8th edition
Indiana specialized courses introduced; DDC-4-IN, DDC-PTD-IN & DDC-6/8-IN
Met Life Driver Safety Online
Trooper Scott Hinshaw of the Colorado State Patrol named Third DDC Instructor of the Year.
Chuck Stebbins III of the Virginia State Safety Council, Inc is named the First DDC Instructor Trainer of the Year.

2006
DDC-Online-IN
DDC- 6 – TX 8th edition
DDC-8 - OH 8th edition
DDC-4 - AZ (based on 6/8 8th edition)
DDC-AZ Online
DDC-8 – Delaware 8th edition
DDC-Alive at 25 – IN 2nd edition
Dynamics of Fleet Safety
DDC-Online-FL
DDC & First Offender abridged Online version for Nashville Courts
DDC-Online (regular program) 8th edition
DDC-8 VA 8th edition
DDC-6 NY 8th edition
John W. Pinckney of CJ Training International named Fourth DDC Instructor of the Year.
Mike Ezzell of Texas Training named second Instructor Trainer of the Year.

2007
DDC-4 5th edition
Teaching DDC 5th edition
Alive at 25 Parent’s Program
DDC-6 DE 8th edition
Colorado State Patrol Alive at 25 Law Enforcement Edition
MA RMV Junior Operator’s License
DDC-Motorcycle Online
DDC-4 - AZ Spanish (based on 6/8 8th edition)
Jack Hanson of the College of Lake County named fifth DDC Instructor of the Year.
Tom Diveley of USAF McGuire Air Force Base named third Instructor Trainer of the Year.

2008
DDC – Professional Truck Driver 4th edition
DDC-Online – NJ
DDC-PTD Self Study
DDC Liberty Mutual
DDC – Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving 3rd edition
Alive at 25 Parent Program Online
DDC-Online for Rock Valley Community College, Rockford, IL
Teaching DDC-Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving 2nd edition
U S Marine Corps adopts Alive at 25
U S Marine Corps adopts DDC-Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving
Nena Myers of the Illinois State Police named sixth DDC Instructor of the Year.
Bob Edwards of Safety and Health Council of North Carolina named fourth Instructor Trainer of the Year.

2009
DDC- Alive at 25 - 3rd edition
Teaching DDC-Alive at 25 3rd edition
DDC-Online – NY (Internet Point and Insurance Reduction Program)
U S Air Force adopts Alive at 25  
DDC - Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving Young Adult – 1st edition
Distracted Driving Resources Kit
SCARR (JOL offenders under MA State Police)
Matthew E. Kelly of the Greater Omaha Chapter and the Omaha Police Department named seventh DDC Instructor of the Year.
Master Trainer Carey Cox name fifth Instructor Trainer of the Year

2010
New 9th edition of the Defensive Driving Course (DDC-8/6)
New edition of DDC self-study program patterned after 9th edition
New edition of DDC Online with graphics package and progressive learning patterned after 9th edition
New DDC-Online IN
New 9th edition of DDC-8-VA
New 9th edition of DDC-6-NY
New 9th edition of DDC-8-OH
New 4th edition of DDC PTD for DDC-PTD-IN
NSC Conducts first "Forum to Keep Teen Drivers Alive" (Itasca, IL)
Gregory N. Tsichlis of The College of Lake County is named eighth DDC Instructor of the Year.
Darryl Gaines sixth Instructor Trainer of the Year. 

2011
Michigan Office of Secretary of State begins state wide point reduction program using DDC-6 classroom and Online
NSC Conducts second "Forum to Keep Teen Drivers Alive" (Houston, TX during 2011 TSCE)
DDC-PTD reissued as a Package Training Program with a video lease as a private training center (NO instructor certification.)  Completion Record NOT Certificate of Completion.
Tom Diveley of the USAF, NJ is elected as the twenty- ninety “Committee Chair”
Peggy Miller of the College of Lake County become vice chair
USAF TSGT Kimberley Williams of Base Langley/Eustis is named the tenth DDC Instructor of the year.
Trooper Kevin Crider of the Colorado State Patrol is the Instructor Trainer of the Year. 
 
2012
New 9th edition of DDC-6-TX
 
Tom Diveley of the USAF, NJ resigns his position as twenty- ninety “Committee Chair”
Peggy Miller of the College of Lake County (vice chair) assumes the remainder of Diveley’s term.
Chuck Stebbins of the Virginia Safety Council in Bedford, VA assumes the chair of the membership and nominating subcommittee.
DDC 4 6th edition begins shipping last week of September
Teaching DDC 6th edition begins shipping last week of September
DDC Kazakhstan (Russia) is released in Russia
Teaching DDC ADD 2nd edition revised to show DDC ADD Young Adult changes
DDC ADD 4 NJ is printed and 1st IDC held
DDC 8/6 Left Side Drive research begins.
DDC 4 6th edition Spanish translation begins
DDC 4 AZ 6th edition begins
Instr. of Year Sept. 28, 2013 Steve W. Bowie
Instr. Trainer of Year Sept. 28, 2013 Angel Rios

2013
DDC Left Side of the Road 1st edition released.
DDC 4 AZ released 1st edition released.
DDC ADD Student self-assessment profiles reviewed for next edition of course.
DDC PTD survey completed with fleet and corporate users and nonusers.
 
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